回来正题。什么是一揽子的世界？那几个世界真的存在呢？电影的结局也就好像揭发着不全面——布奇被杀死了，Philip和他并从未去成阿Russ加。但就是这种不健全，却又在无意识形成着具体而微——Philip回去之后，能够坐云霄飞车了，能够玩treat or trick了，清单上的一项项剧情必需获得Philip的母亲之后布奇才肯放Philip走。那正是以此犯人独有的处分风格吗。他争辩小孩子受到一丁点的有失公正对待，看不惯小孩子的不随意。那也是他干吗要把黄种人绑起来用枪威胁劫持他让他备感去世恐惧的由来。布奇时辰候明确受过肆虐对待，见到现在的小孩就想开了千古的友善，想到自身不兴奋的小儿。
Andrew Laeddis was a soldier who joined the World War Two and killed Germany prisoners of war in death camp. Then he became a U.S. Marshal in Boston, and became alcoholics and ignored his suicidal-wife. Her wife burned their apartment then drowning their three kids in the back yard. Andrew killed his wife to “set her free” and burned their house. According to what Dr. Cawley explain his symptoms at the very end: “You crime is terrible, one you can’t forgive yourself for, so you invented another self. You create a story which you are not a murderer, you’re a hero, still a U.S Marshal, only here because of a case”.
The English meaning for Butch is a man who seems big and strong, and
typically male. And in the movie, he is really fit for the name.
Robert 'Butch' Haynes is a figure more than complicated. Despite his identity of a gangster, nobody will think his an imperfect man. Though he is a gangster, nobody would not feel regret towards the end. All his behaves seems to be a good father, a considerable bodyguard, a humorous brother and an unusual teacher. All in all, he is an antihero, to people who haven’t seen what he did for the little Phillip, he is a bustard kidnapper. Unfortunately, we see what happened between them, so we are in favor of him.
After the movie, I even imagined there to be a man like Butch to take care of me. I would feel like to be the happiest one in the world if I’m Phillip. He fulfilled one dream after another for little Phil, but the most important thing is he help the boy understand there’s no limitation lying before one’s dream, he has the power and courage to break the rules.
Haynes must have a bitter childhood but a tender mother who taught him to love. When the old man treated the black boy badly, he even use a gun to force him to apologize and tell how he love him. He is also a mirror to the many parents ill-treat their children, as what we see during their trip. It is not far from us, those ill-treatments happen everywhere every time that we even feel apathetic about them.
Movies are easily to make people feel drowsy, but a good movie can make us reflect something. So the perfect world is not a perfect movie, but here we have a perfect Butch.
This movie is based on a mental hospital/prison, so most of people in it
have one kind or another abnormality. But I only focus on Andrew’s
disorders. Most mental illness patient will hold multiple disorders,
like he also has persecution mania and proclivity for violence.
Before diagnosis his disorder, I think the background knowledge and social factors introduction for that period is necessary. The World War Two was end by 1945 and this story happened in 1954. During that time, biological perspective and psychopharmacology perspective for abnormal psychology’s treatment had a debate/war. Former emphasized use surgical intervention: psychosurgery, like Tran’s orbital lobotomy or chlorpromazine drug, to solve the problem thorough and quick. But the latter believe that spend time and money to make people “unless happy and peace” is worthy. Andrew is a serious DID patient who suffered the war and fratricidal, also with propensity to violence and paranoia. This movie describes the last psychopharmacological treatment, role play treatment, which cued him finally.
According to the DSM-IV-TR 5-axis to diagnosis his symptom:
Axis I: Schizophrenia and PTSD. DID, single episode. This is obvious in the whole movie.
Axis II: paranoid personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder.
Axis III: the movie does not mention if he overdose or not. But he had been used chlorpromazine for two years and his hands will shake badly when he stopped taking the pills. Also, his migraine may be caused by medical conditions, too. (This is not clear in the movie).
Axis IV: stressor from storm or water will cause migraine or vomit. Any other things about Nazi/German will cause flash back to the death camp and remember the Jewish music at that day.
Axis V: I am affair that Andrew’s GAF score is lower than 30.
自己回忆小黄人的姑姑和飞利浦都曾说过：You are a good man. 从未把他看作人渣。
This is so unfortunate that Andrew has so many problems. The film is only two hours but we can see the problem from his behaviors. According to diagnosis from movie: “patient is highly intelligent, highly delusional decorated army veteran, present for the liberation of Dachau former U.S. Marshal. Known proclivity from violence, shows no remorse for his crime because he denies the crime ever took place. Highly developed and fantastical narratives which preclude facing the truth of his actions.”
First, he is obviously suffered dissociative identical disorder. He creates another self to avoid the trauma. That what the whole movie talking about. Here I had love to mention Defense mechanism which is mentioned several times in movie. Defense mechanisms are largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt. (Psychology: Themes & Variations 8E Briefer Version, Wayne Weiten, P382~383) People use mainly six ways to avoid negative emotions: repression, projection, displacement, reaction formation, regression, rationalization and identification.
He use repression to keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious lead him only thinks about the horrible past when he dreaming. He dreamed about his wife and house at the first time, and the Dachau camp at the second time. After he waked up, he became Marshal again. He use identification to imagine he is still a marshal and never killed anybody to avoid his guilt. He used projection to create another women named Rachel Solando (According to law of 4, Rachel Solando is equal to Dolores Chanal, which is the name of his wife before they married). She “drown her three kids one by one in the lack at back yard”. He put his memory to another unreal person to protect himself. (As I mentioned law of 4 already, you may notice that the Marshal named Edward Daniels is himself, because this name is equal to Andrew Leaddis. If not, you will know at the end of movie)
The most interesting defense mechanism is rationalization. To make his
fantasy world keep going, he rationalized all the usual things, no
matter how Dr. Cawley and Dr. Sheehan imply him. So Dr. Cawley showdown
at the end:
1: last night, Rachel disappeared between 10~12, and today, he is on the ship to Shutter Island with a new partner Chuck, who is from Seattle, 3000 miles away.
2: Chuck is worked four years in federal government but he cannot take out his gun smoothly.
3: Rachel’s room is in B part which is male ward and her shoes are huge men’s shoes.
4: Rachel was found without any scratches on the feet, but it was storm outside and she ran away without shoes on.
There are still more this kind of flaws but he ignore all of them. This is the only way he can keep hiding in his fantasy world.
Review on《A Perfect World》
Law Study 41 Simeng Liu 2141302006
What does a perfect world mean? Does this world really exist? The end of this movie seems to be not perfect – Butch was killed and didn’t achieve his dream: To go to Alaska. However, this kind of imperfection is just promoting perfection – After Phillip comes back home, he has chance to enjoy roller coaster and Treat or Trick and so on. Butch could not let Phillip go until the every item in the listing must be promised by his mother. It is strange to a criminal, but this is Butch. He couldn’t bear that children were judged unfairly and abused. I suppose that is why he tied up the black man to pretend to shoot him so that let the black man feel the fear of death. In my perspective, Butch was bound to be abused in his childhood, calling up his unhappy experience when he saw these children.
As Moment in Peking has written: “So important are little things in our life, perfectly meaningless in themselves, but as we look back upon them in their chain of cause and effect, we realize they are sometimes fraught with momentous consequences.” this action of threatening made Butch killed in the end. Although his action was just out of threatening, not really wanting to kill the black man, Phillip was just an 8-year-old boy, so hard to him to get the point. He just knew that it was wrong to kill people without reason. Butch taught Phillip to shoot, but never occurred to him that one day Phillip would shot him in person.
Is Phillip happy before? I am afraid not. His family was religious to Jehovah's Witnesses, this religion didn’t allow them to celebrate Christmas, Halloween and even birthday. Phillip had never eaten a birthday cake, never played a trick on others. It’s so boring to a little boy. Unlike as he was, he had no power to change it only to observe. His nature wasn’t released. He wanted to fight against it, but religion constraint was too strong. Not only was Butch a rob, Phillip a hostage, but it was Butch who set Phillip’s nature free. Butch inspired him, taught him how to be a brave man and allowed him to do what he wasn’t allowed before. He said: “You know, Phillip, you have a goddamned red, white and blue American right to eat cotton candy and ride roller coasters.” When he asked phillip’s opinion, what he paid attention to was phillip’s true thinking rather than what other adults thought that the things should be. There are lines impressing a lot:
Butch and Phillip was on the way.
Butch: You ever ridden in a time machine before?
Butch: You have. What do you think this is?
Phillip: A car.。
Butch: You are looking at this bass-ackwards. This is a 20th century time machine. I am the captain and you re the navigator. Out there, that is the future. And back there, well, that s the past. If life is moving too slow, to project yourself into the future, you step on the gas right here. And if you want to slow her down, you just step on the brake here, and you slow her down. This is the present, Phillip. Enjoy it while it lasts.
As I mentioned, he has serious paranoid personality disorder. In the
movie, Martin Scorsese used some uncommon phenomenon to imply the
existence of his hallucination:
1: when he first arrived the hospital, everything seems horrible and hostile. All patients were working with handcuffs and fetters. At the end of movie, we can see the reality view of hospital is warm and nice.
2: His wife, a dead woman, appears everywhere.
3: When they interrogate Mrs. Carnes, she wrote “RUN” on his note book but actually she did not. The clue is Mrs. Carnes change her emotion, became scared suddenly. And she pretended to drink water but there was no cup in her hand.
4: Andrew had an important conversation with George in C ward. George’s emotion changed without any sign like Mrs. Carnes, and told Andrew about the brain washing surgery in lighthouse.
5: Andrew found a cigarette end on cliff, so that he found Chuck’s body at bottom. This part is proved is his illusion because he noticed there is no body after he went down the cliff. And there was a clue implies audiences: the wind on cliff blow his hair to the right but the smoke from the cigarette end was to the other side. And then he found a large number of rats come out from the cave. There should not have any rat in ocean. It is imply that the meeting and conversation he had with “doctor” in cave is his imagine.
At present, Butch was Phillip’s Doreamon, making him strong and brave, making him face his own thought. In his words, Life is in control, the key is how you live.
He is “man to violence” or a “violence man”. He loved to choose violence way to express himself. He had hurt most of people in this hospital. The people he beat include patients, security guards, policemen, nurses, care workers, his friend George, and even Dr. Sheehan at the end. And because of his antisocial behaviors, this is the last chance they will treat him as a patient. If role-paly treatment failed, then they will do the lobotomy.
Now, I come back the identity of Butch. He is a criminal who is being
chased by the police, usually representing evil. But in this movie, he
represents some kind of goodness and love. Is a boundary between
goodness and evil really exist?
I remembered that the little black boy’s grandma and Phillip had said: “You are a good man.” They never regarded him as evil.
As a matter of fact, we often divide action that a criminal takes into fault, purpose and motive【过错、目标和动机】. Many motives may lead to a purpose. But crime is a crime, law can’t allow you to hurt one person even if your purpose is to protect other person’s right. Every end of a case in Detective Conan, always a criminal says his reason why he killed the sufferer. A variety of reasons, even if how sufferers should be killed, but criminal also commits a crime. This is what calls law. Don’t ask the past, just the present.
Let’s come to society, what does a good man or a bad man really mean? Or, can you tell me how to tell absolute goodness and absolute badness? A “bad” man, actually, his badness just opposes to our social moral values, do you really think today’s social moral values is absolute good?
As Butch in this film, although he was a criminal chased by the police, but he had many qualities that almost people didn’t have. He was willing to listen to children, to give them a face-to-face talk. He respected every child. What he did is much better than many adults.
So, I still hold the belief that the whole world is beautiful.
All of those disorders were working to his dissociative identical disorder. All the avoidances and defense mechanisms helped him to create a new person and a new story. I choose this character because most of psychiatrists are not willing to accept this disorder. And someone think it is a good way to avoid sadness, so it is not necessary to treat them. But actually the patients is not happy in their fantasy world, they just struggle between the reality and illusion. In Andrew’s dream, his wife said “you have to stay, she is here, you can’t leave” to make him stay in his role-paly memory. But she also said “you have to wake up. You have to dace that” to make him realized the truth. Struggle only can make things worse and increase the tension, and DID should be value so that we can find more valuable and safety treatments.
Andrew’s disorder is not caused by biological injured. His dissociative identity disorder and dissociative amnesia is cause by two traumas in his life. This first time is happened when he was a soldier. He saw thousands women and kids killed by Nazi. In his dream, a little girl asked him why he did not save her, save of them. The second trauma happened when his wife killed his kids. His little girl, Rachel (same name with the missing patient in his imagination), appeared in his dream and illusion many times and asked: “you should save me; you should save all of us!” He blamed himself for why he was there too late; for why he did not pay a little attention on his poor wife; for why he killed his wife.
Psychodynamic theorists believe this disorder is caused by repression, which I mentioned earlier as a defense mechanism. The trauma Andrew went through is thought to result from a lifetime of excessive repression. He cannot accept those memories, so the best way to avoid them is repress them to unconscious part. And create new personalities/alters that can help the host feel better. Behaviorisms believe dissociate is developed from normal memory processes by operant conditioning. Andrew may create some unreal memory and other personalities after the trauma, and he will keep doing that because illusion can make him forget guilt and sadness. After long run, he is truly believed that he is the person he created and those unreal memories become real to him. Someone may argue that DID is a byproduct form evolution of human. But I personally disagree, because I do not think prevention of suicide is a way to continuation the racial.
According the theoretical perspectives and the movie, possible treatment
could be in three ways:
Psychodynamic treatment, which is used in movie, is a useful way because it really works. Exposures, according to Dr. Cawley is role-play treatment, is the way to make patient flash back and try to make them recall the lost memory. It is works because according to Andrew’s reaction, scenario reproduction can make people realize their unconscious thoughts. This treatment cost lots of money, time and labors. The result may be disappointed as Dr. Cawley said: “you was back to normal 9 months ago” but Andrew out of control again. So they use the same way treated him again, and it finally worked. But after his tough memory came back, he was not being able to accept them. At last, he decided to using psychosurgery. Biological treatment used to be very popular, especially in 1950’s. They provide the most quick and effective way to reduce the abnormality. What they do is use electric shock make people numb so that they will feel better, or “put mania patients in cold water until thy calm down”. The case like Andrew, they will cut off his front lob so that he will become an idiot without any emotion and feeling. Biological therapies can solve the problem, but it is because they only focus on the result but not how patients feel. Therapies are made to help people feel better, if they be treat like mice in lab, there is no necessary to use the therapies. Beside the treatment used in movie, behavioral therapies are worth to try . But since Andrew’s disorders were so serious, it may be not work very well. Give him reward when he think and act in a normal way. Encourage him when he faced the trouble to forgiving himself. Teach him how to face his imagination and other illusions. But if he stay in his fantasy world and never came out, this way will be useless.
I have to say this is a perfect movie. Every second is worth to thinking about. I never associate with DID patient but I think this movie describe their situation very well. Some people may feel DID patients’ behaviors are laughable because they switch between different personalities. But this movie provide a real and vivid view of DID patients. If you can went through every second in this movie more than twice, you can see that every detail of dissociative disorder is fully showed. I cannot find any loopholes or tommyrots in this works.
This film brings dark and gloomy emotion to most of people. This is a miserable and entangled story, even is a not real. Beside the sadness, I still feel a little bit warm from this film. Even there is war between biological therapy and psychology theory, Dr. Cawley and Dr. Sheehan still insist to treat their patients nice and warm. They were willing to spend more time and money to save the people in pain instead just use surgery to make them like “zombie”. When Dr. Sheehan noticed that Andrew still believed he is a marshal, I thought I saw the most disappointed face in the world. Two year, lots of money and stress from outside, are equal to nothing. But is Andrew really back to crazy? No! His last question to Sheehan is “Which one would be worse: to live as a monster or to die as a good man?” After Andrew got all his memory back, he cannot take them. But he is not insane any more so he cannot avoid them either. His last choice was agree to accept the lobotomy and become a man without memory and pain. This is the only way he can live as a “good man”.
“I wish I could let you just live in your fantasy world, I really do.” Dr. Cawley’s goal was also what I thought about. Since create alter and story is the way people protect themselves from unacceptable memory, then why just leave them in their imagine world? They could be happier if no one unmasks the lie. But after this movie, I realized that truth will never go, they just wander between conscious and unconscious place in people’s memory. History will stay there forever, no matter you face them or just turn around. Patients usually just struggle between the truth and their imagination. They create one alter to tell them “wake up”, and create another role to push them stay in the dream. They still surfer the pain during the struggle, so face the truth may be better for their future.